Centrifugal Casting

Centrifugal castings are produced by pouring molten metal into a mold that is being rotated or revolved. Both centrifugal and semi-centrifugal castings can be described as castings that are spun on their own axis during the castings operation.

The axis of rotation may be horizontal or inclined at any angle up to the vertical position. Molten metal is poured into the spinning mold cavity and the metal is held against the wall of the mold by centrifugal force. The speed of rotation and metal pouring rate vary with the alloy and size and shape being cast.

Molds may be made of cast iron or steel, copper, graphite, ceramic, or dry sand. The outside surface of the casting or the mold surface proper can be modified from the true circular shape by the introduction of flanges or small bosses, but they must be generally symmetrical about the axis to maintain balance.. The inside surface of a true centrifugal casting is always cylindrical. In semi-centrifugal casting, a central core is used to allow for shapes other than a true cylinder to be produced on the inside surface of the casting.

The uniformity and density of centrifugal castings approaches that of wrought material, with the added advantage that the mechanical properties are nearly equal in all directions. Most alloys can be cast successfully by the centrifugal process, once the fundamentals have been mastered. Size offers no insuperable problems; castings from a few ounces to 50,000 pounds have been made. Since no gates and risers are used, the yield or ratio of casting weight-to-weight of metal is high.

Characteristics of Centrifugal Casting

1) The casting is relatively free from defects.
2) Non metallic impurities which segregate toward the bore can be machined off.
3) Less loss of metal in tundish compared to that in gating and risering in conventional sand casting.
4) Better mechanical properties.
5) Production rate is high.
6) Can be employed to manufacture bimetallic pipes.
7) Centrifugal casting process can be used for fabricating functionally gradient metal matrix composite material.

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